WASHINGTON — U.S. employers added 209,000 jobs in
July, a second straight month of robust gains that underscore the
economy's vitality as it enters a ninth year of expansion.
The unemployment rate slipped to 4.3 percent from 4.4 percent,
matching a 16-year low first reached in May, the Labor Department
But growth in Americans' paychecks — a persistent weak spot since
the recovery began in June 2009 — remains stubbornly slow. Average
hourly pay rose by 2.5 percent from a year earlier, the same tepid
annual pace as in June. That's below the 3.5 percent to 4 percent
that is typical when the unemployment rate is this low.
Still, the hiring data points to a healthy economy despite some
mixed signals in recent weeks. Employers appear to be optimistic
about their businesses and future consumer demand. The solid job
gains may also fuel greater consumer spending, which would bolster
"The July jobs report is solid from top to bottom — with the caveat
that wage growth, while stronger than expected, remains subdued,"
Andrew Hollenhorst, an economist at Citi.
President Donald Trump celebrated the report in a tweet shortly
after the numbers were released. "Excellent Jobs Numbers," he wrote,
"and I have only just begun."
Yet the pace of hiring so far this year is pretty much the same as
it was last year under Trump's predecessor, Barack Obama. Employers
have added 184,000 jobs a month this year, compared with 187,000 in
2016. Monthly job gains topped 200,000 on average in 2014 and 2015.
Investors welcomed the news, with the Dow Jones industrial average
rising 43 points in mid-day trading.
Hiring was particularly strong in restaurants and bars, which added
53,100 jobs. Education and health care, which includes both
higher-paying and lower-paying jobs, gained 54,000.
Manufacturers added a solid 16,000 jobs. Professional and business
services, which includes mostly higher-paying jobs such as
engineers, accountants and architects, added 49,000.
Retail jobs were mostly unchanged, as brick and mortar shops
continue to struggle. Yet transportation and wahrehousing, which has
been boosted in recent years by the rapid growth of e-commerce, also
barely added jobs.
The solid job market is also reflected in recent corporate moves.
Amazon held a nationwide "hiring day" Wednesday in an effort to fill
50,000 jobs. And President Donald Trump has highlighted
announcements by Taiwanese manufacturer Foxconn and carmakers Toyota
and Mazda to open plants in the U.S.
Other recent economic reports had sent mixed signals. Americans are
buying homes at a healthy pace, but car sales have fallen off.
Factory production is expanding modestly, but a report Thursday
pointed to slower growth among services firms, such as retailers,
banks and construction companies. Consumers also turned cautious in
June and barely raised their spending compared with May.
The economy expanded at a healthy 2.6 percent annual pace in the
April-June quarter, up from an anemic 1.2 percent in the first three
months of the year. Still, that leaves the growth at about 2 percent
in the first half of the year, the same modest pace of growth the
U.S. has experienced since the Great Recession.
Jobless rate raises question: How much better
can it get?
WASHINGTON — A drop in the unemployment rate to a
16-year low raises a tantalizing question about the job market: How
much better can it get?
Earlier this year, economists worried that the low unemployment rate
meant businesses would struggle to find workers and that would drag
down the pace of hiring. Those fears were heightened by a tiny job
gain in March and modest hiring in May.
Yet Friday's jobs report suggests such concerns are premature.
Employers added 209,000 jobs, after a solid gain of 231,000 in June,
the Labor Department said. The unemployment rate ticked down to 4.3
percent, from 4.4 percent, matching the low reached in May.
Economists were particularly encouraged by the fact that more
Americans are coming off the sidelines and finding jobs. For the
first few years after the recession, many of the unemployed stopped
looking for work.
Some were discouraged by the lack of available jobs. Others returned
to school or stayed home to take care of family. The government
doesn't count those out of work as unemployed unless they are
actively searching for jobs.
That trend began to reverse last year and has continued into 2017.
To many economists, that means robust hiring could continue for many
more months, or even years.
"There's more people willing to work than the unemployment rate
would have you believe," said Nick Bunker, a senior policy analyst
at the Washington Center for Equitable Growth, a liberal think tank.
President Donald Trump celebrated the data in a tweet shortly after
the numbers were released. "Excellent Jobs Numbers," he wrote, "and
I have only just begun."
Trump technically tweeted too early: His comment was posted at 8:45
a.m., just 15 minutes after the report was released. Federal rules
specify that White House officials should wait for an hour before
publicly commenting. The rule is intended to allow the data to be
released without political spin.
President Barack Obama's former top economic adviser, Jason Furman,
noted the slip-up, calling it a "minor transgression."
The pace of hiring so far this year, while solid, is pretty much the
same as it was last year under Obama. Employers have added an
average of 184,000 jobs a month through July, compared with 187,000
in 2016. Monthly job gains topped 200,000 on average in 2014 and
The steady hiring is adding up. In July, the proportion of Americans
aged 25 through 54 who had a job or were looking for one rose to
81.8 percent, up a half-percentage point from a year earlier and the
highest since December 2010.
Economists focus on that age group because it filters out the impact
of retirements by the huge baby boomer generation and excludes
younger workers who are more likely to be in school.
That means more Americans are optimistic about the job market and
launching job searches. But that proportion is still substantially
lower than the all-time peak of 84.6 percent, reached in January
There's no way to know whether that peak could be reached again.
Many economists are doubtful, in part because it rose sharply in the
1980s and 1990s as women flooded the workforce. The proportion of
women working or looking for work has slipped since 2000.
Based on historical trends, the share of working-age Americans who
either have jobs or are looking for one could rise another 0.7
percentage points. That would create 1.8 million more jobs,
according to Andrew Sojourner, an economist at the University of
Robert Maynard, CEO of Famous Toastery, a 22-restaurant chain based
in Charlotte, North Carolina, is still looking to hire. He plans to
add 10 more restaurants later this year, which should create about
250 full-time jobs.
At the same time, he said, other restaurants are also expanding and
some are even peeling away his employees by offering higher pay.
He's responded by boosting wages 10 to 15 percent.
"We're fighting to get the best workers," he said.
Restaurants and bars added a massive 53,100 jobs in July, roughly a
quarter of all the job gains that month. And restaurant employees
are seeing their pay rise faster than other workers. Average hourly
pay in the industry jumped 4.7 percent in June from the previous
year, the latest data available.
That compares to just 2.5 percent for all workers. Sluggish wage
growth has been a persistent weak spot in the recovery. Wage gains
are typically closer to 4 percent a year with the unemployment rate
Some economists think it may be harder to pull many more workers off
A large proportion of those who aren't looking for work say they are
disabled or ill. Some research indicates many are addicted to
painkillers, noted Jed Kolko, chief economist for Indeed, a job
"They're the kinds of reasons that might not be overcome with
slightly higher wages," Kolko said. "It's really hard to know what
it would take to get people who have left the labor force to come
And many economists argue that demographics will eventually limit
how much more hiring can happen. The U.S. population is aging and
population growth has slowed in the past two decades.
Hiring needs to stay healthy for people like Johnny Palmer, of Stone
Mountain, Georgia. After a long stint out of work, he found a job in
June at Northside Hospital in the Atlanta region, preparing meals
"It's a lot of people still trying to find jobs," he said. "But the
bottom line is trying to find a job where you can make enough money
to live above the poverty line. It's hard," he said.