two other films at festival
Film Festival’s opening weekend including screenings of
“Slenderman,” as well as a newspaper documentary and a
story of romance from France.
get old, but some sequels succeed
“Gypsy” composer Stephen Sondheim insisted
“you’ve gotta have a gimmick,” moviemakers need to
realize gimmicks go out of style. Its “found
footage” gimmick made “The Blair Witch Project” a
big-screen hit in 1999.
A deeper disaster travel film
We’ve seen this
before from Tom Hanks: a disaster during travel. Remember
“Apollo 13?” How about “Castaway?”
‘Sea of Trees’ hit emotional notes
Hollars” is part tearjerker, part zany comedy, part
paean to that wonderful and wild institution we call
somewhat brighter than ‘The Light’
pleasurable to view a preponderance of commendable
characters on a movie screen, especially in these
skeptical and self-centered times.
book adaptation both outstanding
as much in awe as the next critic of Meryl Streep’s
accomplishments, including record numbers of Golden
Globe and Oscar nominations.
more delectable than ‘Sausage’
of the expression “local boy makes good” is on
display at area movie theaters. David Lowery, who was
born in Milwaukee and did some of his growing up in
Waukesha, is director and co-screenwriter of “Pete’s
Dragon,” a solid 3-D Disney remake of a 1977
animated/live action picture by the same name, also by
Society’ Allen’s best since ‘Blue Jasmine’
as cynical” as previous Woody Allen pictures, offered
an audience member at “Cafe Society” last week.
don’t know about that.
‘Bourne’ ultimately turn out to be disappointing
concerns a faux cultural phenomenon: teenagers choosing to
watch online, or actually play, a game on the order of Truth
or Dare. In this ongoing competition known as Nerve,
however, there are only dares. People pay to play, and to
not quite ‘fabulous;’ ‘Equals’ sci fi movie
a relatively recent trend, the comedic “Absolutely
Fabulous: The Movie” is based on an award-winning BBC
‘Wilderpeople’ delightfully quirky
“Hunt for the
Wilderpeople,” based on a book by Barry Crump, is a
delightful dramedy from New Zealand with a quirky cast of
characters. iker: Psycho Sam (Rhys Darby).
Life of Pets’ funny twist on old cliché
about everyone is familiar with the cliché “While the
cat’s away, the mice will play.” The plot of a new
animated feature from the folks responsible for the
“Despicable Me” movies might be summarized a wee bit
differently: “While the owners are away, the cats will
5 films for 2016 easy to rate, so far
Choosing my top
five films of the year’s first half isn’t a daunting
task, as the highest rating I gave
— 3 1/2 (out of 4) stars
— went to exactly five 2016 movies.
preferable to ribald comedy
horror with politics, as “Purge: Election Year” does,
may not be an original movie idea. But the more sarcastic
among us will contend that, given the parade of presidential
aspirants we’ve witnessed in the past year, the idea is at
least an appropriate one.
plain magical; ‘Swiss Army Man’ displays ‘magical
The phrase “winning
combination” applies to “The BFG,” a Disney 3D film
based on Roald Dahl’s 1982 book. “The BFG” (for Big
Friendly Giant) brings together children’s author Dahl (“Charlie
and the Chocolate Factory”), who was something of a giant
himself at 6-foot-6, director Steven Spielberg, composer
John Williams, Oscar-winning production designer Rick Carter
and Oscar-winning cinematographer Janusz Kaminski.
Disney fish story, is fine family fare
a fishy film, computer-animated “Finding Dory,” deals
with a blue-tang title character.
character, voiced by Ellen DeGeneres, suffers from
short-term memory loss and has become separated
from her loving parents, Jenny and Charlie (voices of
Diane Keaton and Eugene Levy).
controversial film’ debuts Friday
this weekend: a documentary its publicists are
trumpeting as “the most controversial film in America”
and “the film they don’t want you to see.”
a bit to see in ‘Now You See Me 2’
“Now You See Me 2” isn’t quite the movie that has
do ‘Popstar’ and Lonely Island fare?
take The Three Stooges, if you please. I finished watching
The Lonely Island comedy trio in “Popstar: Never Stop
Never Stopping” just an hour ago.
subject, ‘Dark Horse’ likely to please
Osmond found the true story of a horse and his unlikely
owners “a wonderful mash of genres, part classic British
‘Billy Elliot’/’Full Monty’ underdog tale, part
‘Lavender Hill Mob’ caper (and part) ‘Rocky.’”
to be said for new ‘Neighbors’
little else can be said for recent movies starring the
talented but misguided Seth Rogen, a case can at least be
made for their ecumenism. Last year’s awful Christmas
flick, “The Night Before,” used Catholic midnight Mass
as a springboard for Rogen’s tasteless humor.
a long two hours; still has quality, appeal
Lobster’s” mundane opening scene, of a woman motoring
through the rain, arguably runs too long. But then, the
scene accurately foreshadows the movie as a whole. It, too,
seems overly long at times.
Birds Movie’ does indeed have silver lining
above song excerpt is, more or less, how “The Angry Birds
Movie” begins. The lyrics are from “Friends,” a ditty
written and performed by Blake Shelton.
summer movies add to franchises
been sending the titles of, and additional information
about, their summer films. Following are summaries of 15
movies slated to debut between Friday and the end of
September, although dates should be regarded as tentative.
‘Meddler’ still has quality, appeal
Meddler,” written and directed by Lorene Scafaria
(“Seeking a Friend for the End of the World”), certainly
falls short of perfection.
Day’ best way to spend Mother’s Day?
in preparing to write a movie review, I find myself ignoring
the studio-produced press notes. In the case of Garry
Marshall’s “Mother’s Day,” however, I’ve elected
to read what the publicists had to say.
& Nixon’ revisit poignantly funny, but ‘Adderall
unthinkable Kevin Spacey would forsake screen acting.
However, if the unthinkable ever became actual, Spacey -
based on his spot-on rendition of Richard Nixon in “Elvis
& Nixon” - could easily earn his livelihood as an
‘Criminal’ is mixed while ‘Miles’ may, or may not,
as “the story of the right man in the wrong body,” Ariel
Vromen’s “Criminal” is a mixed bag. Positives about
the espionage-sci-fi flick include excellent pacing, the
curious ability to compel viewers to empathize with a
character who himself has no empathy, and a cast featuring
Kevin Costner, Gary Oldman and Tommy Lee Jones - a trio that
first worked together 25 years ago on Oliver Stone’s “JFK.”
‘Jungle Book’ revisits 50-year-old cartoon
magic of Disney combines - once again - with the creativity
of Kipling to create “The Jungle Book” on screen.
Producer-director Jon Favreau’s version is a live
action/computer-generated retooling, in 3-D, of the animated
“Jungle Book” from 1967.
not up to last two McCarthy films
McCarthy is a gifted comedian, a talented actress.
there’s also the raunchiness factor with her movies.
Vincent” with Bill Murray two years back was an exception
and McCarthy delivered an excellent performance.
Wedding 2’: year’s No. 1 comedy
taken Hollywood 14 years to come up with a sequel to “My
Big Fat Greek Wedding.” So, was “My Big Fat Greek
Wedding 2” worth the wait? I’m not sure. I saw bits and
pieces of the first installment after it moved from big
screen to television screen, but I remember very little
about it. What I do know is that I found “2” enjoyable
from start to finish.
comedy ‘Bronze’ has golden moments
Bronze,” which stars Melissa Rauch, is occasionally
surprising, occasionally predictable. Take that to
mean the movie is contradictory, if you will.
effort highlights ‘Whiskey’
yeoman’s job by star Tina Fey highlights “Whiskey Tango
Foxtrot,” a dramedy based on Kim Barker’s book, “The
Taliban Shuffle,” about her days as a war correspondent in
better than it sounded
Young Messiah” didn’t sound too promising. SeveraI weeks
ago I received notification of the new film that described
it in part as “the inspiring story of seven-year-old Jesus
Christ and his family.”
for Oscar predictions - and lamentations
annual Academy Awards gala is nearly upon us. With the
nominees chosen, it’s time for predicting the winners -
and lamenting others who’ve been left out of the race.
soars; ‘Witch’ less than beguiling
film” is the cliché I thought of as I watched “Eddie
the Eagle,” a pleasant flick about bona fide Olympic skier
kudos for ‘Lady,’ ‘Deadpool’
narrator of “The Lady in the Van,” author Alan Bennett
(Alex Jennings) describes the title character (Maggie Smith)
with a barrage of awful adjectives: “bigoted,
cantankerous, devious, unforgiving, self-serving, rank and
of Saul’ finer than ‘Finest’
Hollywood presented rookie of the year awards, the Hungarian
Laszlo Nemes would definitely be in contention.
Unfortunately for the 38-year-old “Son of Saul”
director, who also co-wrote the film’s screenplay, the
rookie award remains a baseball phenomenon.
captivates, but whither goes ‘Mojave’?
and directed by William Monahan (“The Departed”),
“Mojave” stars Oscar Isaac, who’s become quite the
prolific performer (“Star Wars: The Force Awakens,”
“Ex Machina” and “A Most Violent Year”).
Along 2’ nothing special, but then again ...
Along 2” is nothing special, particularly when compared to
truly outstanding movies playing locally like “The
Revenant” and “The Force Awakens.” Then again, the
comedic “Ride Along 2” is infinitely better than the
tasteless Christmas comedy “The Night Before” and
certainly no worse than M.
forward to cinema’s spring
distributors - Broad Green Pictures, A24 Films, Lionsgate,
Sony Pictures Classics and Universal Pictures - have
released titles, and descriptions thereof, for the spring.
a Western ‘painfully realistic’
Revenant” is a
painfully realistic pre-Civil War Western with incongruously
was a great year at the movies
been an excellent year for motion pictures. Interestingly,
most of the ones I’ve liked best - the top six of my top
10 - are reality-based.
is a different but good gridiron movie
is a different sort of football film, one concerned with
debilitating head injuries that have too frequently spelled
death for ex-NFL players. It’s a movie with inventive
director Russell helms
‘Joy’ to behold
O. Russell’s new movie “Joy” is a tantalizingly quirky
comedy in the tradition of his 2013 ABSCAM-based endeavor
VII good, just not great
A friend hit the
nail on the head when he predicted the seventh film in the
“Star Wars” series “will be a good movie, (but)
won’t be great.”
VII’ awakens new hope
Buchholtz didn’t care for the last three “Star Wars”
movies. In an interview, the Bay View resident summarized
those prequels as “poorly acted, poorly written, not very
well thought-out.” He added that “Episode I: The Phantom
Menace” (1999), “Episode II: Attack of the Clones”
(2002) and “Episode III: Revenge of the Sith” (2005)
each “came off more like a video game than a movie.”
inspirational, if not cutting-edge
may be that Mother Teresa, the Albanian nun revered for her
work among India’s impoverished and the subject of the
newly released biopic “The Letters,” was from the day
she joined the Sisters of Loreto at age 18 a saintly
personage - chaste and obedient in accordance with the vows
nuns take, prayerful, other-centered.
harsh ‘Night Before’ assessment proves accurate
after a screening of “The Night Before,” I heard a woman
comment, “I just wasted an hour and 45 minutes of my life
that I’ll never get back again.”
drama’s heart in right place … or places
Home is where the
heart is. But can the heart be in two places at once? That
seems to be the basic question John Crowley’s
“Brooklyn,” based on a novel by Colm Toibin, is
up to ‘President’s Men’
but ‘My All American’ no ‘Rudy’
it takes a village to raise a child,
an attorney for clerical sex abuse victims in the
takes a village to abuse one.
has superior production values,
but ‘Suffragette’ is superior film
good as Carey Mulligan was as “Far From the Madding
Crowd’s” leading lady last spring, the English actress
is even better as a pre-World War I women’s rights
activist in “Suffragette.
fascinating, if not flawless
“Room” is a
well-cast movie, with emotionally wide-ranging performances
by Brie Larson (also very good in the recent “Trainwreck”)
and 9-year-old Jacob Tremblay (truly remarkable). Both
actors could get Academy Award nominations, as could “Room’s”
Irish director, Lenny Abrahamson.
be told, Redford’s Rather credible
one of “Truth’s” final scenes, Robert Redford as Dan
Rather is cheered by a roomful of co-workers after signing
off for the last time as “CBS Evening News” anchorman.
While applauding Rather, the
other actors could also have been applauding Redford, who,
made up to resemble the newscaster, deserves kudos for
capturing Rather’s voice and mannerisms in an
appropriately low-key performance.
‘Goosebumps’ a bumpy ride,
but Spielberg’s ‘Bridge’ worth negotiating
outsized monsters and a militia of evil-intentioned garden
gnomes, the most interesting subjects in “Goosebumps”
are human: three pretty sensible kids and a couple of kooky
Home’ is great, but not in today’s 3-D adventure sense
Home” is an extraordinary film, but it’s hardly a bells
and whistles film. Cops and a criminal may be at its center,
but this Chinese movie with English subtitles and a 20th
century time frame is no action-adventure picture, no
breakneck-paced police procedural with bullet-dodging or
madcap driving or other acts of derring-do.
‘The Walk’ another fine fall flick
my review a week ago, I exulted that several good movies had
accompanied our new autumn movies like that review’s 3
1/2-star subject, “The
Martian.” Ridley Scott’s sci-fi adventure may or may not
have been the best release since Labor Day; now, however, as
quickly as it burst upon the scene,
“The Martian” has been overshadowed by Robert
Scott’s ‘Martian’ looks to be among better autumn crop
End of the Tour.” “Grandma.” And now, “The
Martian.” History does seem to repeat itself: Autumn
approaches; a better crop of feature films emerges.
latest: One ‘Visit’ you need not make
the list of places you need not visit, feel free to add
theaters showing “The Visit,” M. Night Shyamalan’s
terrific as ‘Grandma’
you wish you had
may not be a technical trailblazer, but “Grandma” is a
terrific motion picture: unfailingly amusing, poignant, very
capably acted, a thorough - and thoroughly captivating -
story in 79 short minutes.
‘Walk’ should take a hike
Redford’s latest movie, “A Walk in the Woods,” has
been done before, more or less, and done better. The
previous rendition occurred last year, a drama with Reese
Witherspoon and Laura Dern instead of a comedy starring the
less impressive duo of Redford and Nick Nolte.
screen keeps it real this fall
If reboots have
figured prominently in this summer’s cinematic landscape,
the fall season promises to place emphasis on movie art
retread 'Man From U.N.C.L.E.' passes muster as feature film
I’ll add my thumb to those already thrust in the air in
support of “The Man from U.N.C.L.E.,” Guy Ritchie’s
feature film based on the old TV series with the same
movie anything but dull
proposing David Foster Wallace, late author of the
well-regarded novel “Infinite Jest” and subject of the
feature film “The End of the Tour,” for canonization.
films take two societal glimpse set in San Francisco, Ireland
It’s 1976. Patty Hearst,
seen on a TV clip in “The Diary of a Teenage Girl,” is big
news this Bicentennial year while Watergate has apparently been
truth stranger than fiction
Crystal Moselle’s “The Wolfpack” concerns a most
unusual family: the Angulo brood of seven children, all but
the youngest of them males, their Peruvian papa, Oscar, and
their mother, Susanne, of Midwestern farm stock.
Man,’ ‘Pixels’ revisit Dostoyevsky, Pac-Man
“Irrational Man” begins as a potential revisiting of “Educating
Rita” with Joaquin Phoenix in the Michael Caine role. It
becomes an updated screen version of Dostoyevsky’s “Crime
and Punishment” with Phoenix as above-the-law Raskolnikov.
a misnomer for Schumer movie?
through Judd Apatow’s “Trainwreck,” a character is
denounced as universally offensive but then immediately
lauded as likable, everybody’s favorite person.
is hell' theme dominates 'Testament of Youth'
of Youth,” based on an autobiography by the same title,
begins on Armistice Day, 1918. World War I, the inaccurately
dubbed “war to end all wars,” is over and there is
jubilation on the streets.
'Me and Earl' definitely worthwhile
find myself wondering whether it’s merely coincidental
that “Me and Earl and the Dying Girl,” the
movie based on Jesse Andrews’ novel, takes place in
'Max' isn't 'Mad,' dog story has positives
a clarification. “Max,” from “Remember the Titans”
director Boaz Yakin, is not to be confused with another new
movie, “Mad Max: Fury Road.”
Max: Fury Road” has been applauded by critics. “Max,”
although not without positives, is ultimately a middling
offers a lot of hilarity and a bit of bawdiness
latest Melissa McCarthy movie, at first looks and sounds
like a James Bond film, with handsome Jude Law in the Bond
role and a song remindful of “Goldfinger” playing as the
aside, 'Aloha' leaves little to capture the
first film since 2011 from writer-director Cameron Crowe (“Almost
Famous,” “Jerry Maguire”), has met with considerable
public grousing due to, among other things, its allegedly
disproportionate amount of Anglos for a Hawaii-set
Perfect 2' strikes several sour notes
I don’t know
that I’ve seen a theater empty quite as quickly as the one
where I watched “Pitch Perfect 2” the other day.
future could have used a lot more laughs
including the one played by George Clooney in a new Disney
extravaganza, could’ve chosen to heed the biblical
recommendation ”do not worry about tomorrow.”
Crowd' packed with performances in a beautiful film
Like Shakespeare and Dickens,
Thomas Hardy is an oft-filmed British writer. Movies have
been made of Hardy’s “Jude the Obscure,” “Tess of
the d’Urbervilles,” “The Mayor of Casterbridge” and
now, for the second time, “Far from the Madding Crowd.”
Story' is actually two stories -
and both have been better told
The movie “True
Story,” like the 2005 book on which it’s based, is
actually two stories. One concerns Michael Finkel’s
reporter job loss. The second, and larger, story deals with
Finkel’s identity loss to a man accused of murdering his
wife and three children.
can't sing in 'Collins,' Isaac
can dance in 'Machina' but both can act
I really liked
“Danny Collins,” despite some implausibilities. Agile
and captivating, the picture stars Al Pacino - still capable
of commanding the screen - as a pop singer who receives a
letter, waylaid for 40-plus years, from John Lennon.
worth 1,000 words, 'Woman' good as gold
That old adage
“One picture is worth 1,000 words” rings true, time and
again, in the documentary “The Salt of the Earth.”
'Home' has endearing hero, J. Lo songs, memorable messages
the company responsible for the “Shrek,” “Madagascar”
and “How to Train Your Dragon” series, comes another
example of stellar computer animation.
of Doubt' pits spin
doctors vs. climatologists
If, based on our
last two Wisconsin winters, you’ve decided global warming
is a myth, the new documentary “Merchants of Doubt”
might just change your mind.
captures turbulent Belfast on many levels
nighttime footage and daytime scenes of a dark nature; evil
characters and good ones whose largesse stops slightly short
of heroism; long
takes and a relatively - and appropriately - skimpy musical
score in which a drum figures prominently.
'Red' than dead
went from playing schoolboy hockey with flattened cans for
pucks to captaining what some considered the best hockey
team on earth, to building leagues and arenas - plus
bringing the 2014 Olympic Games to Sochi - as Russian
President Vladimir Putin’s minister of sport
'Leviathan' Worth Your Time
the Russian movie “Leviathan” in the worthwhile viewing
isn’t light fare, isn’t a happy story (it’s a drama
devoid of comic relief), but the subtitled “Leviathan”
is well-acted, well-directed, well-photographed and
definitely capable of holding an onlooker’s attention for
its two-plus hours.
likely to parallel Golden Globes
WAUKESHA - The
prediction here is that Academy Awards night Feb. 22 won’t
yield many surprises - at least not in the prominent
categories of leading and supporting actor and actress,
director and motion picture.
Year' tantalizingly cryptic
WAUKESHA - Tantalizingly cryptic.
That adverb-adjective combination came to mind as a
description of composer Alex Ebert’s jazzy-solemn score
for “A Most Violent Year.”
'4' movie buffs to
brush up on Oscar history
WAUKESHA - Now
that the Golden Globe Awards have been distributed, it’s
time to turn our attention to the Oscars.
‘Selma’: How far have we come?
WAUKESHA - “Selma,” the formidable screen story of the
Martin Luther King Jr.-led civil rights march between Selma
and Montgomery, Ala., in 1965, virtually ends with a rap
number called “Glory.”
'Foxcatcher' among 2014's best films
WAUKESHA - Terrifying pipsqueak may be an oxymoron, but it
also seems a spot-on description of John du Pont - or least
the du Pont portrayed by Steve Carell in “Foxcatcher.”
Cabbie' mostly drives the wrong way
- Cast an engaging actor (Vinay Virmani) as the lead in your
comedic flick and a lovely actress (Adrianne Palicki) as his
significant other. Surround the pair with cartoonish
relatives and buffoonish current and former friends.
offers enough for animation fans
WAUKESHA - “Penguins
of Madagascar” opens on a snowy scene - a meandering march
(or should I say wintry waddle?) of the titular creatures,
who are generally unconcerned about an egg hatching in their
of the year on the silver screen
WAUKESHA - In
about a month, on the cusp of a new year, film reviewers
near and far will be offering their top 10 lists for 2014.
of Everything' at 'St. Vincent' winners; 'Beyond the Lights'
mired in mediocrity
Oscar buzz is attaching itself to “The Theory of
Everything,” a film about physicist Stephen Hawking.
boasts solid acting, story line
Director and co-writer Christopher Nolan’s “Interstellar,”
this year’s marginal comparison to last year’s “Gravity,”
includes enough positive elements to qualify as
flies high; 'Before' needs more
co-written by Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu (“Babel”), “Birdman”
has everything from A to Z: A:
An apple - the Big Apple - provides “Birdman’s”
recalls classics; 'Judge' raises objections
I once knew a guy
who seemed happily married. He was even happier when he was
performing in amateur plays, however, so he opted to act
professionally. This new commitment, he decided, would
necessitate breaking up with his wife.
Best of Me' hardly a winner
WAUKESHA - “The
Best of Me” isn’t the best of movies and “The Judge”
raises some objections, as well. Here are more detailed
Mancha’s’ idealism, execution merit standing applause
MILWAUKEE - I
didn’t think I’d ever experience a match for
“Ragtime,” a recent musical produced by the Milwaukee
Rep, but “Man of La Mancha” lives up to that level of
excellence. It delivers two uninterrupted hours of
glorious, captivating and inspiring artistry.
Sunday’ shows Tennessee Williams’ humorous side
Tennessee Williams is not known for his sense of humor, so
his play “A Lovely Sunday for Creve Coeur,” one of his
later, less-well-known works, is a delightful
Civic’s ‘Gypsy’ wows with talent, music
- ”Gypsy” is a fitting choice to herald in the 60th
anniversary of Waukesha Civic Theatre’s inception, an
accomplishment that only 100 of the 7,000-plus community
theaters across the country can boast of.
Over Buffalo’ cast skillfully pulls off farce
GROVE - Once a big hit for Carol Burnett, “Moon over
Buffalo”, a popular Ken Ludwig farce, is causing its share
of chuckles at the Sunset Playhouse.
Day’ delivers breathtaking performances
Billie Holiday, in one of her last performances, returned to
Emerson’s Bar and Grill in Philadelphia in 1959. Although
she had performed in large prestigious venues such as
Carnegie Hall, she preferred the intimacy of spaces where
she could get in touch with her audience.
Wild Party’ serves up Roaring ‘20s morality tale
- ”The Wild Party” is based on a poem written by Joseph
Moncure March in 1928. The
poem was initially banned because of its blatant narrative
of sex, booze and drugs prevalent in The Roaring Twenties.
‘Odd Couple’ stars shine nicely outdoors
TOWN OF DELAFIELD
- Neil Simon is probably one of the greatest American comedy
writers of all time, and “The Odd Couple” still speaks
to audiences even after 50 years.
and Sonia and Masha and Spike’ uncovers humor
- Christopher Durang, a prolific, absurdist playwright, has
combined a passing salute to Anton Chekhov for setting and
themes, but one does not have to be familiar with his work
to catch the humor of this piece.
Country Players take ‘A Walk into the Woods’
- Probably most of us have encountered “Into the Woods”
as a stage musical or movie, but the junior version is a
fairly recent addition to Sondheim’s clever conglomerate
of fairy tales. Last week, Waukesha Civic Theatre gave
us the junior version of “Legally Blonde.”
should be out on SummerStage, community theater
OF DELAFIELD - The challenges of outdoor theaters are many -
weather, people who let their children run around during the
performance, patrons who distract others by eating nosily
and the added demand on the actors to project their voices.
‘Legally Blonde’ cast makes its case for determination
WAUKESHA - Two
alternating casts of young actors burst onto the stage to
tell the story of a young blonde, seen as ditzy by some,
proving herself to be a strong, determined person who learns
from her experience.
in the Rain’ number worth the drive to Fireside
ATKINSON - It would be hard to replicate Gene Kelly’s role
as Don Lockwood in the 1952 movie “Singin’ in the
relationships ensue in ‘Curtains’
WEST ALLIS - John
Kander and Fred Ebb, a team that wrote
many successful musicals, including “Cabaret,”
“Chicago” and “Kiss of the Spider Woman,” also
united their talents in creating a musical-mystery called
“Curtains,” a work not as famous as the other three, but
nonetheless an interesting one.
in first half of 20th century, marital issues of ‘I Do! I
Do!’ remain timely
- When Jan de Hartog wrote “Four Poster Bed” in 1940
while hiding in a nursing home disguised as a woman during
the Nazi occupation of Holland, little did he know what a
long life his play would enjoy.
on ‘A Feast of Stephens’ with many outstanding songs
WAUKESHA - Steve
Decker, along with the help of many other talented artists,
has gathered an assemblage of 21 vocalists and an amazing
pianist and musical director, Phil Smith, along with
creative choreographer Ryan Cappleman, to perform more than
22 tunes (some were medleys) from the works of the prolific
musical composers Stephen Sondheim and Stephen Schwartz.
produces flawless ‘Anything Goes’
ELM GROVE - Many
older musicals have little substance and rather vapid plots,
but in “Anything Goes,” with so many memorable tunes by
Cole Porter, the production numbers compensate for the
overall literary sparseness.
drama based on 1913 trial not to be missed
— “Parade,” based on the book by Alfred Uhry,
with music and lyrics by Jason Robert Brown, is based on a
provocative trial that occurred in 1913 in Atlanta.
‘Rockin’ at the Fireside’ dazzles with talent, range
you’re into rock from the 1950s, ‘60s and ‘70s,
Fireside’s present offering will keep you relishing the
beat for two hours. Almost everyone of note is included in
an array of 50 tunes in “Rockin’ at the Fireside.”
'Wonderland' is a dark and unusual version of the classic
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, under the pen name of Lewis
Carroll, wrote “Alice in Wonderland” in 1865, I doubt if
he would have envisioned his imaginative fantasy living on
for 150 years and being adapted into films, plays and
musicals countless times.
Garden’ blossoms under Soulstice’s care
FRANCIS - A lovely children’s classic written in 1911 by
Frances Hodgson Burnett, “A Secret Garden” is
still alive and thriving.
charms with Wilde’s satirical ‘Importance of Being
TOWN OF DELAFIELD
- SummerStage opens its 2016 summer season with its first of
a trio of plays -the classic Oscar Wilde’s “The
Importance of Being Earnest,” his most popular work.
funny ‘Fawlty Towers’ brings anticipatory laughs to
WAUKESHA - ”Fawlty Towers”
is based on a British TV show, considered by many to be one
of the best comedies ever to hit the tube. Written by John
Cleese and Connie Booth, it reflects a Monty Python-style
humor - clever and wacky, even deliciously absurd.
fun in farcical ‘Boeing Boeing’ lies in the lies, doomed
ELM GROVE - A
long-running French farce by French playwright Marc
CamolettI, “Boeing Boeing” takes us on quite the ride.
‘As It Is In Heaven’ develops individual portraits
WAUKESHA - The
principles and spirit of the Shaker religion are beautifully
revealed on stage in Carroll University’s rendition of
“As It Is in Heaven,” a play by Arlene Hutton and
directed by Jennifer Dobby.
Boots’ puts its stunningly best foot forward
- ”Kinky Boots” exploded on stage at the Marcus
Center as the last Broadway show of the 2015-16 season.
It is a fairly recent musical (2014) based on a true
story and woven together by the talents of Harvey
Fierstein and Cyndi Lauper.
theater awaits in the wings
Even though many
of the professional theaters have finished their seasons,
there are still many opportunities for live theater in the
summer months. Here are the offerings for your perusal.
‘Pirates’ comes up a winner
- Starting in 1959 when Skylight Opera Company occupied a
warehouse on Jefferson Street, the currently named Skylight
Music Theatre has played Gilbert and Sullivan 45 times,
including 10 of the “Mikado,” seven of “H.M.S.
Pinafore” and nine productions of “The Pirates of
Purple Plastic Purse’ filled with lessons for young
MILWAUKEE - This
is one for the kiddies, 3 and up.
A colorful stage greets them, creative costuming,
energetic dancing and many lessons to be learned - all at a
level that the little people can grasp and enjoy.
Act’ affectionately steps, sings its way through The
ATKINSON - If you want an interesting mix of crime and
cloister, “Sister Act,” now playing at The Fireside
Theatre, is dishing up this clash of opposing worlds.
‘Sirens’ can sing
Whenever one tries to create a show that features a
singer’s or a group’s life and music, the hardest task
is to weave together the songs with the narrative.
Time, Next Year’ revival still works
WEST ALLIS - Many
of us remember the 1978 film “Same Time, Next Year,”
starring Alan Alda and Ellen Burstyn. It was based on a play
by Bernard Slade and was played on Broadway by a succession
of several pairs of actors, including Burstyn.
Country Players ably handle strong ‘Urinetown’
- The title “Urinetown” makes one ask:
What is this play about, anyway? It’s an intriguing
questioning of the prospect of a severe water shortage and
the repercussions of that eventuality.
one man’s pain mend in ‘Fences’?
MILWAUKEE - The
lights come up upon a modest two-story brick house on an
empty stage. There is a small front yard, one tree and a
partially-built fence. A baseball bat lies on the ground, an
holiday is a musical adventure
MILWAUKEE - It is
rare that one sees life or death from Death’s perspective,
but in “Death Takes a Holiday,” one has the rare
opportunity to see that Death is a person with a job to do,
a rather grim one, to be sure.
Civic Theatre does a spunky ‘Annie Get Your Gun’
WAUKESHA - The
Waukesha Civic Theatre, under the astute direction of John
Cramer, has done it again - produced a musical of sterling
Fair Lady’ another rousing success for Falls Patio Players
FALLS - There are four thriving community theaters in
Waukesha County: Sunset Playhouse in Elm Grove, the Lake
Country Players in Hartland, the Waukesha Civic Theatre in
Waukesha and the Falls Patio Players in Menomonee
Tandem’s ‘Ernest’ cleverly balances satirical look at
high society, romance
”The Importance of Being Ernest,” Oscar Wilde’s most
popular and successful play, continues to amuse audiences
Bee’ finds the right words, strikes all the right notes
GROVE - Spelling bees have always been a part of our
education system, but it is a relatively recent phenomenon
that they have gone national and appeared on TV and in
movies. “The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee”
takes advantage of the growing popularity in this particular
form of competition.
roles explored, pushed in ‘A Doll’s House’
MILWAUKEE - Plays
about marriage are usually a big draw since most people have
engaged in this venerable institution at least once. “A
Doll’s House,” a Henrik Ibsen play written in 1879,
created an uproar when it was first performed.
Bald Soprano’ gongs in the wacky and absurd
Eugene Ionesco, a Romanian-French playwright, is labeled an
absurdist and an existentialist. His philosophy was quite
dour. He described society as “full of decay, corruption,
and meaningless repetitive actions.”
Ten Chimneys guest’s play weathers the years well
- Noel Coward, a frequent visitor to Ten Chimneys in the
Town of Genesee, the center of the theatrical universe for
many years, once said about one of his visits, “I dined
with Alfred and Lynn - just the three of us.
Madson steals the show in ‘A Shot in the Dark’
WEST ALLIS - ”A
Shot in the Dark,” adapted from the French play “L’Idiote,”
is probably better known as a film by the same name starring
Peter Sellers. The play was used as the basis for the movie.
of ‘Motherhood’ highly identifiable
- We’ve all had mothers, for better or for worse, and
chances are that most of them have tried to keep us alive by
caring for us and shielding us from danger.
explores the lengths of obedience in thoughtful First Stage
MILWAUKEE - As
children we are taught that it is good to obey our parents
and teachers and priests or ministers, but the present
production at First Stage Children’s Theater, “Ella
Enchanted,” questions that directive.
performances heighten ‘Witness for the Prosecution’
- Agatha Christie, the British Grande Dame of mysteries,
converted one of her many short stories to the stage in
charms, but Tony winner falls short on message
The musical runs
through Sunday with two performances on Saturday and Sunday
at the Marcus Center, 929 N. Water St., Milwaukee, as part
of its Broadway Series.
Call 414-273-7121 or visit MarcusCenter.com.
on Final Approach’ explores sexist view of World War II
Renaissance Theatreworks, whose aim is to present plays with
significant roles for women in order to achieve gender
parity in the arts, does so again in its “Censored on
too ordinary for ‘Ordinary Days’
- Whenever playwrights want to develop the theme of
loneliness in the midst of millions of people, they often
use New York City as their setting. It lends itself to a
feeling of being lost. The
complexity of a very large city can be overwhelming to a
neophyte, but actually people can be lonely anywhere.
a voice in thought-provoking ‘Song’
The play runs
through April 10 at the Milwaukee Rep, 108 E. Wells St.,
Milwaukee. Call 414-224-9490 or visit www.MilwaukeeRep.com
for times and tickets.
‘Hattitude,’ music, faith overcome
hardship in ‘Crowns’
— A colorful fusion of faith and fashion is being delivered
at the Skylight Music Theatre via their present production
of “Crowns” by Regina Taylor. It combines Gospel, jazz,
blues and rap in a delightful, soulful mix, celebrating
African-American culture through music and fashion.
lessons populate First Stage’s ‘The Snow’
- ”The Snow” by the prolific playwright Finegan
Kruckemeyer is a story about solving problems, facing
difficulties with creativity and hope, and coming to terms
with one’s own abilities and limitations.
romance in ‘Sea Marks’ raises questions of priorities
ST. FRANCIS - The
sea casts its mark upon the shore as a reminder that it has
been here and that it will be back, so those who live beside
it should never become complacent.
explores the big questions and private lives
”Autonomy” by Jayme McGhan, on stage at Concordia
University, provides us all with something to think
Foreigner’ not foreign to area audiences
GROVE - Larry Shue became a legend in the Milwaukee area
when he was killed in a plane crash in 1985. In the previous
seven years before his untimely death, he was involved at
the Milwaukee Rep as an actor and playwright-in-residence.
Ladies’ leaves them laughing at Waukesha Civic Theatre
- We’ve seen some of Ken Ludwig’s comedies before.
“Lend Me a Tenor” and “Moon over Buffalo” are
two community theater favorites.
Former Brookfield playwright requires
rapt attention in ‘The Invisible Hand’
— It is not easy to write a review that captures the power
of “The Invisible Hand” by the talented American-Pakistani
playwright who grew up in our midst.
One-man ‘Lamps’ a tribute to families
“Lamps for My Family,” a one-man tour-de-force by Mark
Corkins, was written by native Milwaukean Michael Neville as
a memory play.
‘Slowgirl’ takes audience on journey as it winds its way
through unpredictable plot
MILWAUKEE — “Slowgirl” is a
sweet, poignant story of a mismatched pair of characters who
meet again under rather unusual circumstances after a
nine-year hiatus and end up helping each other.
to the Cabaret
- ”Cabaret” by John Kander and Fred Ebb is a fascinating
mix of fear, love, dark humor and decadence. It has been
re-crafted and several times since its inception in 1966.
of the Prophet’ shines a comic light on human suffering
Playwright Stephen Karam was a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize
for “Sons of the Prophet” in 2012 and the recipient of
the Drama Critics Circle Award the same year. The honors
satire and Shakespeare at Wisconsin Lutheran College
“Loves Labour’s Lost” is one of Shakespeare’s
original plays. And the production harkens back to
entertaining techniques from the period.
Love sparkles as larger-than-life Bessie Smith
- As we entered the Stackner Cabaret, we could hear the
voice of Bessie Smith on an old recording.
element falls short in WCT’s clever exploration of
WAUKESHA - If
you’ve never had the pleasure of seeing the play
“Almost, Maine” by John Cariani, run, not walk, to the
Waukesha Civic Theatre this weekend.
‘Odd Couple’ explores if two women can live together
without driving each other nuts
FALLS - We’ve probably all encountered “The Odd
Couple,” either the movie with Jack Lemmon and Walter
Matthau or the TV series with Tony Randall and Jack Klugman.
packs power in look at Rodney King beating
- Sometimes it is painful to relive an event, but it is
useful to look back and see if we have learned anything from
it. This is especially evident in our country with its
history of slavery that continues to haunt us.
Music Theater presents 'Powder Her Face'
MILWAUKEE - With
music by Thomas Ades and the libretto by Philip Hensher,
“Powder Her Face” tells the story of Margaret Campbell,
a British duchess who was known for her beauty, wealth and
Now Darling’ offers pleasant romp
HARTLAND - Ray
Cooney, sometimes called the British Neil Simon, is known
for his farces. His most famous play, “Run for Your
Wife,” ran in Great Britain for more than nine years.
‘Steel Magnolias’ highlights heart with a smile
GROVE - The title “Steel Magnolias” is an oxymoron used
by playwright Robert Harling to describe the beauty and
strength, the delicacy and toughness of women.
Rep’s ‘Of Mice and Men’ grippingly moving
MILWAUKEE - John
Steinbeck often wrote survival stories where human strength
and loyalty are tested. “Of Mice and Men” is assuredly
one of his most heart-wrenching works.
of actresses delivers in ‘Agnes of God’
MILWAUKEE - The
drama “Agnes of God” raises more questions than it
answers, but it is intriguing and mentally stimulating to
engage in the journey of listening in on Agnes, a young nun,
who is being tried for murder; her Mother Superior; and the
psychiatrist, Doctor Livingston, who has been hired to
determine Sister Agnes’ sanity.
of ‘Starlings’ is puzzling at times
FRANCIS - If you’ve ever watched a flock of starlings, it
looks like an amorphous group of birds flying around without
any discernible pattern or direction. Ben Parman’s
new play, “Starlings,” is well named because it, too, is
appears too weighty for its young target audience
MILWAUKEE - When
a theater recommends that a specific show is targeted for a
particular age group, one expects that there is a good
match. I’d like to have a discussion with a group of
fourth-graders to discern what they derived from
“Holes,” presently playing at First Stage Children’s
brings big-name mix, Vegas glitz
ATKINSON - ”Legend” and “Carrie Underwood” might not
usually go in the same sentence because of longevity.
takes center stage in ‘Newsies’
- “Newsies,” a touring Broadway show now playing at the
Marcus Center, is based on a true story, the newspaper
boys’ strike of 1899 in New York.
best plays of 2015
my “Best of the Best” article at the end of the year is
always fun, but also very challenging. Enriched as we are in
Milwaukee and Waukesha counties with many quality theaters
and a plethora of talented people, making the best choices
as I travel back in time can be stressful, but I’ll do my
best to be thorough and fair.
‘Guys on Ice’ another keeper
- I have seen “Guys on Ice” many times, my favorite play
of the talented Wisconsin playwrights, Fred Alley and James
Kaplan. It’s the sort of comedy that provides a lot of
laughs as well as affords some insight into male
stirred in ‘Month Before Christmas’
- ”‘Twas the Month before Christmas” has Waukesha’s
Doug Jarecki written all over it. It oozes his unique
spirit - a bit wacko, generous, childlike, creative and
spirited, even sweet and sentimental.
is especially welcoming for ‘Heir’
MILWAUKEE - The
Milwaukee Entertainment Group, which performs at the Brumder
Mansion, almost always makes use of the beautiful estate and
playhouse in its productions.
Twisted Carol’ tries too hard to be funny
MILWAUKEE - In
Tandem Theatre is well-known for offering an alternative
show at Christmas. It is usually irreverent, satirical and
quite funny for those who appreciate this brand of humor
where sacred cows are not worshipped.
of My Life’ proves moving
- “The Story of My Life” is a little gem that is hard to
describe. Being played out in the Boswell Bookstore gives it
an intimacy not always experienced on a typical stage
Christmas treat for the community
WAUKESHA - One
senses in the first few minutes that many changes have been
made in Waukesha Civic Theatre’s long-running traditional
Christmas show “Candy Cane Tales and Holiday Carols”
when the first number is about texting a merry
takes on ‘A Christmas Carol’ produce pleasing results
feature of the Lake Country Players’ production of “A
Christmas Carol” is the music, and when Catherine Pfeiler
has a hand in it, you can be sure that it will be of high
provides twist to ‘Love Stories’ by famed authors
— It is not so uncommon for a married couple to both be
engaged in the acting profession. In the Milwaukee theater
scene, it’s fun to watch several pairs work together,
including in the current run of the trilogy “Love
the meaning of the holiday through ‘A Charlie Brown
Although I’m a big Charlie Brown fan, I thought that “A
Charlie Brown Christmas” at the First Stage Children’s
Theatre was a bit disappointing. Snoopy was the biggest
feature and very well-played by Matt Daniels.
‘Fair Lady’ astounds
“My Fair Lady” remains the ultimate musical in my book.
With its brilliant script adapted from the consummate writer
George Bernard Shaw’s “Pygmalion,” its soaring music
by Frederick Loewe and clever book and lyrics by Alan
Lerner, it can hardly miss.
showy season heavy on ‘Christmas Carol’
season is almost here, and a flurry of Christmas shows await
us in Waukesha and Milwaukee counties and beyond.
‘Mousetrap’ ensnares audience’s attention
- Any play that has been performed more than 25,000 times
for over 60 years in London, not to mention its frequent
production around the world, obviously has strong appeal.
a wonderful version of a beloved holiday classic
ATKINSON - “It’s a Wonderful Life” has been around
since 1946 as a memorable film with Jimmy Stewart and Donna
Reed. Standard holiday viewing, it has also emerged as a
radio show. The Fireside Dinner Theatre in Fort
Atkinson is now showing a musical version, a relatively new
creation (2005), which adds another delightful dimension to
this cherished story.
Jewish Christmas story
Coming from a small theater company that has survived for 30
years, “Handle with Care” by Jason Odell Williams is
another victory for founder Mark Bucher and his penchant for
making wonderful choices.
Caruso’ encore deserves applause
Thanks to playwright William Luce, many icons have been
resurrected. With his life-like biographical dramas, he has
brought Charlotte Bronte, Lillian Hellman and Emily
Dickinson back from the dead.
‘Wicked’ and in-depth
- Prequels are not as common as sequels, but the intriguing
and popular musical “Wicked” is an example of a prequel
we’re glad that Stephen Schwartz and Winnie Holzman
of Emmett Till’ still resonates today
MILWAUKEE - In
1962 Bob Dylan wrote a song about the horrendous death of
the 14-year-old Chicagoan Emmett Till, who was killed in
Mississippi in 1955 by two brothers who were later acquitted
by an all-white, male jury for the crime they admitted
of ‘Lockerbie’ shines through tragedy
Except for the inconsistency of the Scottish dialect among
the characters, Wisconsin Lutheran College’s “The Women
of Lockerbie” was one of the most beautiful, most moving
plays I have seen this year.
‘Turn of the Screw’ open to interpretation
— Henry James has never been an easy read. “The Turn of the
Screw” is a strange tale, one which literary scholars have
variously interpreted. I’m sure the audience at the Waukesha
Civic Theatre also regarded the play with some degree of
ambivalence and befuddlement over many unanswered questions
as the play ended.
Lion’ emerges as a powerful one-man autobiography
- Put together a skilled guitarist, a talented singer, a
good storyteller - all united in a very personable, handsome
young man - and you have the formula for the success of
“The Lion.” Now playing in the Milwaukee Rep’s Steimke
Studio Theatre, it is a true story written and told by
and the Giant Peach’ yields delicious outcome
MILWAUKEE - First
Stage Children’s Theatre usually delivers pretty amazing
shows, but occasionally there’s one that goes beyond
hits home run with ‘Back Home’
MILWAUKEE - A
show that pays tribute to a singer of renown, assembling his
most famous songs and giving us interesting tidbits about
his or her life is always welcome, especially when it comes
from the pen of a person who traveled with the star for
Kills Monsters’ takes on gender roles, death
- Based on fantasy role-playing adventure, “She Kills
Monsters” at the University of Wisconsin-Waukesha picks up
on the flavor of Waukesha Reads this year. It is a perfect
fit for those who enjoy.
Girls’ conflicts, songs, costumes sparkle
Though the composers of the award-winning musical “Dream
Girls” (Tom Eyen and Henry Krieger) deny that their show
is reminiscent of the rocky career of The Supremes, there
are enough similarities to warrant one’s drawing that
Family’ a real scream
ELM GROVE - The
one and only Addams family has been with us since Charles
Addams began creating his cartoons for The New Yorker. Since
the inception of this family in the 1930s, there have been
countless spinoffs in other media - most recently a Broadway
and Lewis - exploring one of history’s biggest
- It is always interesting to speculate on the
“what-ifs” in life.
What if I had pursued a different career,
what if I had married a different person, what if ...
? Robert Frost
addressed this issue in his famous poem “The Road Not
Country tops area ‘Shrek’ musical productions
HARTLAND - Shrek
is an ogre who represents all those who feel unaccepted or
scorned because they don’t fit the mold of what’s
accusations, profiling rise up in ‘Back of the Throat’
MILWAUKEE - When
several members of a group do something wrong, it’s often
a tendency to stereotype all members of that same
Given Monday’ proves to be an unforgettable, complex drama
MILWAUKEE - On
any given Monday night, there will probably be millions of
men and some women watching “Monday Night Football.”
That’s predictable. But, a play by the same name, now
showing at the Tenth Street Theatre under the auspices of In
Tandem Theatre Company, is anything but predictable.
Allis Players capture spirit of Neil Simon’s ‘Barefoot
in the Park’
ALLIS - It is no surprise that Neil Simon’s 1963 play
“Barefoot in the Park” continues its popularity.
Simon’s longest-running Broadway show still amuses
us because of its recognizable situations, its accessible
characters and its humor.
Dancing’ mesmerizes at the Marcus Center
MILWAUKEE - You
could feel it in the air as soon as the show opened.
“Dirty Dancing,” a very popular movie in 1987, starring
Patrick Swayze and Jennifer Gray, has a huge fan base, and
they were ready to experience the thrill of the dancing
again, this time live, as the opener of the Marcus Broadway
Players open 50th season with ‘Godspell’
FALLS — Patio Players opened its 50th season with a stunning
production of “Godspell,” a musical which surprised audiences
when it opened in 1971 and has been delighting millions ever
treatment of loss, surprisingly, leaves one feeling
MILWAUKEE - A new
local playwright and director has hit the stage at Brumder
Mansion under the auspices of the Milwaukee
“Amused” is Megan Ann Jacobs’ first published
play, and it is a delightful, fanciful one with the theme of
moving on after a loss.
Opera amazes with Puccini’s popular ‘Tosca’
- One often hears of the artist as a pauper and one who only
achieves fame after his death. Not so in Puccini’s case.
He made more money in his lifetime than any other classical
composer before or since. He died a millionaire at 65.
‘Ghosts’ of Ibsen’s time remain issues
Henrik Ibsen, one of the most renowned Norwegian playwrights
of the 19th century, was severely criticized during his life
for tackling issues that were not culturally acceptable as
material for literature.
poets’ lives artfully captured in ‘Dear Elizabeth’
Anchored by a strong script by Sarah Ruhl and stellar
performances by Norman Moses and Carrie Hitchcock, the lives
of poets Robert Lowell and Elizabeth Bishop are brought to
light in the Milwaukee Chamber Theatre’s second offering
of the 2015-16 season.
outdoes itself musically with ‘A Little Night Music’
- Versatile, edgy, clever, unusual, creative, humorous,
moving - all these words and more cannot fully
describe the music and lyrics of Stephen Sondheim. Unlike
many composers, his music is difficult to classify.
Dale’ reflects grim life reflected in ‘Orphan’s Home
WAUWATOSA - In
Horton Foote’s last years, after a life of prolific
playwriting, he ventured into his last ambitious work,
“Orphan’s Home Cycle,” a series of nine plays about
small-town life in Texas over a period of 30 years,
following the fortunes and misfortunes of three families.
examines human cruelty, spirit
- Based on a 1991 film of the same name, “Dogfight,” the
musical, opened off-Broadway in 2012. This is its first
showing in the Milwaukee area.
‘Final Adventure’ adds laughs to mystery
ELM GROVE - For
more than 125 years, Sherlock Holmes has been an icon among
of ‘West Side’ won’t be let down by Fireside
FORT ATKINSON -
Fireside has taken on the challenge of an American
masterpiece, “West Side Story,” a 1957 update of
Shakespeare’s classic romance “Romeo and Juliet.”
‘Othello’ explodes at APT
GREEN - Shakespeare has created many memorable tragic
heroes, but none among them is more heart-wrenching and
gullible than Othello, nor is there another villain more
conniving, ruthless and despicable than Iago.
of quiet desperation on full display in ‘Picnic’
OF DELAFIELD - Whenever I see a William Inge play, I am
reminded of that Henry David Thoreau quotation about most
people leading lives of quiet desperation. Born in
Kansas, Inge is sometimes called the artist who was the
voice of small-town life in the Midwest.